Posts Tagged ‘Go’

Continuous Delivery Warts and All

June 22, 2012 2 comments

Tom Duckering was back at Skills Matter this week, and this time he bought a friend (and fellow thoughtworker), Marc Hofer. They were there to talk to us about a “real life” continuous delivery project they’ve recently been working on. I sat, listened, took notes, and then I had to leave because I was meeting my girlfriend at the cinema to watch “Snow White and the Huntsman”, which was absolutely AWFUL by the way. Do not waste your time on this movie, it seriously drags on forever and I actually fell asleep before the end. It has Charlize Theron in it (is it me or is she in everything right now?), but don’t let that fool you, it’s still rubbish. Anyway, as I was saying, I took notes, and this is what I learned…


The “warts and all” title was meant to be a caveat that they don’t claim to have got everything perfectly right, and that there were problems along the way on this project. The client for this particular project was “Springer” (a publishing company) and the job was to redesign the website (basically). One of the problems they were aiming to fix was the “time to release”, which was in the region of months, rather than hours, and so they decided to go all Continuous Delivery from the outset. Another thing worth mentioning was that this was a greenfield project, which has its advantages and disadvantages, as outlined here in my incredibly pointless table:

I did that table in Powerpoint, thus highlighting my potential as a senior manager.

Why Continuous Delivery?

The fact that they chose to follow the continuous delivery path right from the outset was an important decision. In my experience, continuous delivery isn’t something you can easily retro fit into an existing system, well, it’s not as easy as when you set out right from the start to follow continuous delivery. Tom put it like this:

You can’t sell continuous delivery as a bolt-on

Which, as usual, is a much better way of putting it than I just did.

Once of the reasons why they went for the continuous delivery approach with this client was to sell more of Jez Humble’s Continuous Delivery book (available on Amazon at a very reasonable price). Just kidding! They would never do that. They actually chose continuous delivery because of the good-practices (I’m trying to stop using the term “best practices” as I’ve learned that it’s evil) it enforces on a project. Continuous delivery allows you to have fast, frequent releases, which forces small changes rather than big ones, and also forces you to automate pretty much everything. They even automated the release notes, which is something we’ve also done on a project I’m working on currently! Our release notes are populated from a template, content pulled in from Jira, and they’re packaged up in every single build. Neat, no? Well Tom seemed pretty impressed with the idea, and I’m quite chuffed that we’re doing the same stuff.

Another reason they opted for a continuous delivery approach was to overcome the IT bottleneck problem.

Look at all the cool stuff I can do with MS paint!!

It would seem that there was an IT black hole which was unable to produce as quickly as the business demanded. I usually hear people say “Agile” is the solution to the IT bottleneck, rather than continuous delivery, but Tom made a point of saying that they were agile as well. I think continuous delivery helps teams to focus on the delivery aspect of agile, and gives us a way of bringing the delivery issues much further back down the line, where they can be addressed more easily, and not at the last minute. As I mentioned earlier, time-to-market was an important driving factor in choosing continuous delivery. I would also add that, in my experience, having a predictable time to market is of great importance to the business. You tend to find that project sponsors don’t mind waiting a couple of weeks, maybe longer, for a change to go live, as long as that estimate is realistic.

The Details

I won’t go into too much technical detail about the project they were working on, so I’ll summarise it like this:

  • Local virtualisation was done using Vagrant and VirtualBox, so dev’s could easily spin up new environments locally.
  • They used Git, and it wasn’t easy. Steep learning curve etc. Using submodules didn’t help either.
  • They had on-site Git go-to people, which helped with the Git learning curve.
  • Devs could deploy to any environment – this was useful for building up environments, but is scary as hell.
  • They kept the branches to a minimum – only for bugfixes or when doing feature toggle releasing.
  • They do check-in stats analysis to “incentivize” people. Small and frequent commits were rewarded.
  • They used Go (they have my sympathy).
  • They deploy using capistrano
  • They deploy to a versioned directory and use symlinks which helps with rollbacks (I’d say this was a pretty standard practice)
  • They use Kickstart and Chef to build workstations, and Chef-Solo for other environments
  • The servers are provisioned with VMWare, the base OS installed with Cobbler/Kickstart, and the “configuration” applied by Chef
  • Even the QA environment was load balanced!
  • This is a long list of bullet points

I was pretty interested with the idea of load balancing the test environment because it reminded me of a problem I had at a company I was working for a few years ago. We didn’t have a load balanced test environment but we did have a load balanced live environment, and one night we did a scheduled production release which just wouldn’t work. It was about 4am and things weren’t looking good. Luckily for me, a particularly bright developer by the name of Andy Butterworth was on hand, and he got to the bottom of the problem and dug us out of a hole. The problem was load-balance related of course. Our new code hadn’t been written for a load balanced cluster, but we never picked it up until it was too late. I’m not sure what past experiences drove Tom and Marc to implement a load balanced test environment, but it’s a good job they did, as Tom testified that it has saved their bacon a few times.

Load balancing QA has saved our bacon a few times!

One of the other things that I was interested in was the idea of using Vagrant and VirtualBox for local VM stuff. I was surprised at this because they are also using VMware. I wondered why, if they’re already using VMware, they don’t just use VMware player for their local VMs?

I was also interested in the way they’d configured Go, which, at a glance, looked totally different to how we’ve got our one setup here where I’m currently working. I’m hoping Tom will shed some light on this in due course!

I loved the idea of using check-in stats to incentivize the team! I’m really keen on the whole gamification thing at the moment, and I’m trying to think of some cool gamified way of incentivizing teams where I work. The check-in stats approach that Tom talked about looked cool, they analyse the number of check-ins per person and also look at the devs comments too, and produce a scoreboard :-)

More Than Tools

I’ve been to a few talks and conferences recently and one of the underlying messages I’ve got from most of them is that people and relationships are more important than tools, and by that I mean that it’s more important to get relationships right than it is to pick the right tools. Bringing in a new amazing tool isn’t going to fix the big problems if the big problems are down to relationships.

I can think of a few examples: introducing tools like VMware and Chef are great at helping to speed up provisioning and configuring of environments, but if you don’t actually work on the relationships between the development and operations teams, then the tools won’t have any effect, the operations team might not buy into them, or maybe they’ll use them but not in the way the developers want them to. Another example: bringing in a new build tool because your old build system was unreliable. This isn’t going to fix your problem if your problem was that your old system was unreliable because development weren’t communicating clearly with the build engineers.

So relationships are key. But how do we make sure we’ve got good relationships? Well, I think if anyone knew the answer to that one they’d bottle it and sell it for millions. The truth is that it’s different for every situation, but there are things which can make sure you’re all on the same page, which is a start:

  • Have shared goals! I’m often banging on about this. Everyone has to push in the same direction. For me, in reality this often means trying to educate people that we don’t make any money from having reliable builds on developers laptops if the builds are unreliable in the CI/build system. We don’t make money out of finishing all our story points on time. We don’t make money out of writing new features. We make money by delivering quality software to customers! So I think that is exactly what we should all be focused on.
  • Be agile! I know this might seem a bit like it’s the wrong way around, but I actually think that being agile helps to build relationships. It’s a practice and a mindset as much as a process, and so if people share that mindset they’re naturally going to work better together. In my experience, in Operations teams we’ve been quite slow at adopting agile in comparison to other teams. It’s time for this to change. Tom said that on the project he’s working on, the Ops team are agile, and he identified that as one of the success areas.
  • Pair up. There’s nothing quite like sitting next to someone for a couple of days to help you see things from their perspective! On Tom & Marc’s project at Springer they paired the ops guys with dev. I would recommend going further and pairing dev with support engineers, QA (obvs!) and build/release management on a regular basis. Pairing them with users/customers would be even better!
  • Skill up. Tom & Marc talked about cross pollination of skills, and by this he means different people (possibly from different teams) learning parts of each others trade and skills. Increasing your skillset helps you understand other people’s issues and problems better, as well as making you more valuable, of course!

I became a better developer by understanding how things ran in Production – Marc Hofer


In summary – Tools are important, people and relationships are importanter (new word), you should automate everything, take little steps instead of big ones, stick to the principles of continuous delivery, and the new Snow White movie is bollocks.

Greasemonkey script for CI system

Here in Caplin Towers (it’s not really called that) we’ve got a couple of projectors displaying the Continuous Integration builds up on the walls. It’s pretty useful until you get to the point where you’ve got more projects than space on the wall. We got to that point a while ago, and have had to resort to only displaying the “most important” builds on the wall. Clearly this is not very cool, because all the builds are important.

Sorry, there's no room here!

Sorry, there's no room here!

I decided to write a script which would scroll through all of the build groups and display this on the wall. I worked out that it would take about a minute to scroll through the whole lot, with a 4 second pause on each build group. My first thought was to use Watir (a ruby based browser scripting tool), and this would have probably worked fine on a Jenkins, Bamboo or CruiseControl system, but not for Go (I needed my solution to work for Go as many of our builds are in this system at present). You see, Go displays build groups by use of “views” (like Jenkins does). Unfortunately in Go there isn’t a different url for each view, meaning I can’t just write a simple ruby script that loads up a different page for each build group. I guess it must be handled by javascript.

So, I decided to try selenium. In theory this should have worked fine, and indeed it would have if I could be bothered to spend a bit more time on it. My plan was to record a journey which loaded up each view, one after another, and then play back this journey using selenium RC so that I could put it into a scheduled cron job and have it run over and over again. Like I said, in theory it works fine, but in practice it wasn’t such a great idea afterall. Firstly, there’s always that delay as selenium initializes and loads the browser, then there’s the presence of the selenium window, and then there’s the problem of having to update the script every time a new build group is added. I know most of these issues can be overcome fairly easy, especially if you’re selenium savvy or if you have a java framework for laoding and running selenium tests in place. I was just about to go down the route of writing my journey in java (mainly so that I can manipulate the window sizes more easily), when my colleague Edmund Dipple, said “I saw you struggling, so I’ve knocked this up” and showed me a greasemonkey script which does exactly what I was looking for. :-)

Basically the script runs through each pipeline group, one after the other, and pauses for 5 seconds on each one before moving on. Perfect. He used the chrome developer tools (or you could use Firebug on Firefox) to find out the name of the pipeline group container (which turned out to be “pipeline_groups_container”) and then iterate through each of the child elements (the child elements represent each pipeline group). The full script is here:

var timeout = 5000;

var counter = 0;
var groups = document.getElementById(“pipeline_groups_container”).children;
var groupsLength = groups.length;

function scroll()

groups[i].style.display = “none”;
groups[counter].style.display = “block”;


if(counter == groupsLength)
counter = 0;




And now we see each build group on screen, one at a time:

This is one pipeline group....

...and this is another

What is in a name? Usually a version number, actually.

July 7, 2011 15 comments

Another fascinating topic for you – build versioning! Ok, fun it might not be, but it is important and mostly unavoidable. In an earlier blog I outlined a build versioning strategy I was proposing to use with our Java builds. Since then, the requirements have changed, as they tend to, and so I’ve had to change the versioning convention.

Essentially, what I’m after is a way of using artifact version numbers to tell me some useful at-a-glance information about the artifact I have created. Also, customers want the version number to meet their expectations – that is, when they get a new build, they want to see an easily identifiable difference in the version number between the new build and their old one. What they don’t want is a long complicated list of numbers which are hard to distinguish. For instance, it’s much easy to identify which of the following 2 versions is the latest:

  • 5.0.1
  • 5.0.4

but it’s not so easy to work out which of these is the latest:


As we’re practicing continuous delivery, any given check-in can feasibly produce a release build. So, I would like some way of identifying exactly which check in produced my builds, or at least have a way of working out which bits of source code went into my released package. There are a couple of ways we can do this:

Tag the source code – We could make the builds tag the source code in our SCM system (Perforce) with every build. This is relatively easy to do using Ant and Maven. With Ant there are numerous different ways of doing it depending on your SCM system, for instance, with subversion you need to use the SvnAnt tasks from subclipse ( and basically perform a copy of your source url:

 <copy srcUrl=”${src.url}” destUrl=”${dest.url}” message=”${version.num}”/>

(this is because tags in svn are just cheap copies with a label).

With Maven you just need to use the release plugin – this automatically handles tagging for you.

Tagging the source code is great – it keeps the version numbers as simple as I’d like, and it’s nicely traceable. However, it’s time consuming, and can result in a lot of tags.  The other problem is, I can’t tell which check-in caused the build just by looking at the version number of an artifact.

Use the commit number in the build version - We use a build version of Major.Release.Patch-Build in our artifacts. The build number used to be an auto-incrementing number – this worked fine but it didn’t give us a link back to which commit had caused the build to be made. So, I decided to use the perforce changelist id (i.e. the commit version) as the build number in the version, so that builds would end up looking something like this: 1.0.0-11531.

The problem here is that the version number is not customer friendly – so I remove the build number as a final step, before the builds get released to customers. To track what version the customers have got, I still keep a record of the full build number (including the commit number) in the release notes, and I could also easily inject it into an assembly info or properties/config file if I so wished, so that customers could very easily read out the full version number just by looking in a menu somewhere.

There were several obstacles I had to overcome to get this working. The first obstacle, and really this was the one that stopped me from tagging the source code, was that the maven release plugin is abysmal when it comes to continuous delivery. I needed to use the release plugin to tag the source code, but one of the other things that the maven release plugin does is to remove the word SNAPSHOT, increment the version number, and check the pom back into source control. This would cause another build to trigger in the CI system, which in turn would increment the build number etc and cause another build to trigger – so on and so on. Basically it would create a continually building project.

So I have decided not to use the maven release plugin at all – it doesn’t seem to fit in with Continuous Delivery. In order to create potential release candidates with every successful build, I’ve removed the word SNAPSHOT from all the poms, so we aren’t making any snapshot builds anymore either (except when you build locally – more on that later). The version in the poms now takes the P4 commit number, which is injected via the Continuous Integration system, which in my case is Go. Jenkins also supports this, using the subversion plugin (if you use subversion), which sets an environment variable with the svn revision number (more details here). The Jenkins Perforce plugin does the same thing, setting the P4_CHANGELIST environment variable – so it can easily be consumed (more details here).

Go takes the P4 changelist number and puts it in an environment variable called “GO_PIPELINE_LABEL”. I read this variable in, and assign it to a property called p4.revision. I do this in the command that kicks off the build, so that it overwrites a default value which I can keep in my pom – this is useful because it means my colleagues and I don’t have to make any changes to the pom if we want to run a build locally (bear in mind if we run it locally this environment variable won’t exist on our PCs, so the build would otherwise fail). Here’s a basic run down of a sample pom, with more details to follow:


<description>Description about this application</description>







The value for p4.revision is “SNAP” by default, meaning that if I make a local build, I’ll get an artifact with the version 5.0.2-SNAP. I know that these builds should never be promoted to production or handed to customers because the word SNAP gives it away.  However, when a build is created by the CI system, the following command is passed:

clean deploy sonar:sonar -Dp4.revision=${env.GO_PIPELINE_LABEL}

This overwrites the value for p4.revision, passing in the Perforce commit number, and the build will create something like 5.0.2-1234 (where 1234 is my imaginary p4 commit number).

I’ve added a property called main.version, which is the same as the full version but without the build number. I’ve done this so that I can package up my customer builds (ina  zip) and label them with the version 5.0.2. After all, customers don’t care about the build number.

An important policy to follow is once a build is released to a customer, one of the other version numbers MUST be increased, meaning all further builds will be at least 5.0.3. The decision of which version number to increase depends on various business factors – I like to increase the 3rd number if I’m releasing a patch to a previously released build. If I’m releasing new functionality I increase the second number. The first number gets increased for major releases. The whole issue of version numbers becomes a lot less complicated if you’re in the business of releasing software to web servers and you don’t actually have to hand software over to customers. In this instance, I just keep the full version number with the build number at the end, as it’s usually someone like me who has to look after the production system anyway!

Maven Release Plugin and Continuous Delivery

June 15, 2011 7 comments

I was setting up a Continuous Delivery system using Maven as the build tool, Perforce as the SCM and Go (ThoughtWorks’ CI system). All was going perfectly well until I got to the point when I no longer wanted to make snapshot builds…

The idea behind my Continuous Delivery system was this:

  • Every check-in runs a load of unit tests
  • If they pass it runs a load of acceptance tests
  • If they pass we run more tests – Integration, scenario and performance tests
  • If they all pass we run a bunch of static analysis and produce pretty reports and eventually deploy the candidate to a “Release Candidate” repository where QA and other like-minded people can look at it, prod it, and eventually give it a seal of approval.

As you can see, there’s no room for the notion of “snapshot” and “release” builds being separate here. Every build is a potential release build. So, a few days ago I went right ahead and used the maven release plugin, and that was the last time I remember smiling, having fun, getting a full night’s sleep, and my brain not hurting.

The problem is this: the maven release plugin doesn’t really work for continuous delivery. And what’s more, it REALLY doesn’t work with Go and Perforce. I’ll start with the Go/Perforce issues: I got loads of errors thanks to the way Go runs as the system user, and creates its own clientspecs. The results of this debacle are detailed here and here.

I managed to finally get around the clientspec/P4/Go problems with some help from my colleague Toby Catlin who bears the scars of similar skirmishes with Go and Perforce from days gone by. The “fix” was to create a perforce config file and an “uber” client spec. The perforce config file specified the uber clientspec and it lived in the root of the project directory. It was hardly a satisfactory workaround, as it meant that every project would need to have this file, and the uber clientspec would need to be updated every time a new build job was created. But never mind that, it was just a relief to see the builds going green for a change.

And that’s when it happened… the release build completed. The maven release plugin increased the version number in the pom and checked it in. And then Go detected the change in the pom and checked it out again and started building again. This then updated the version number and checked it in, which in turn got detected and kicked off another build CAN YOU SEE THE GLARINGLY OBVIOUS PROBLEM HERE????

It’s obvious really. I’ve always made my maven release builds a manual process in the past and that was exactly why, I’d just forgotten all about it. So, I’ve decided not to use the maven release plugin at all. Every build now just creates a “release” build because I’ve removed all instances of the word SNAPSHOT from the poms. If they pass all their tests and look good enough, they’re automatically promoted to the release candidate repository. And everyone’s happy. Also, I’ve added a property to the builds which pulls in a variable from the Go system, and if that’s not present the “deploy to release candidate repository” step fails – this is to stop developers from manually creating releases – all release builds must come from the CI system.

POM ‘ release:prepare release’ not found in repository

June 13, 2011 3 comments

I’m rather irritatingly getting this error in my maven builds at the moment, trying to setup some release builds using Go:

POM ' release:prepare release' not found in repository

One issue I have with Go is that it doesn’t natively support maven. This isn’t really much of a big deal because I can just tell it to run a custom command, and point it to the mvn shell or batch file (this could be a bit of a pain if I want my builds run on windows and/or linux but don’t want to have to define separate build jobs for each one, but I don’t, and I can’t think of any reason why I would, so that’s ok). Anyway, the issue this time is with the way I setup the build job. I used the new (in version 2.2) clicky-UI to setup the job, like telling it to run the mvn batch file, and what arguments to pass. This just seemed not to work. When I looked at the Go xml file it looked a bit like this:

<job name=”build_release”>


<exec command=”D:\buildTools\maven\2.2.1\bin\mvn.bat” workingdir=”yadda\yadda”>

<args>-B release:prepare release:perform</args>






So I deleted it and manually edited the xml, making it look like this instead:

<job name=”build_release”>


<exec command=”D:\buildTools\maven\2.2.1\bin\mvn.bat” args=”-B release:prepare release:perform” workingdir=”yadda\yadda” />






And this seems to have fixed it. Not very impressive at all.

Fixing java heap issue with maven sites

April 14, 2011 1 comment

I’ve suddenly started getting a few java heap (OutOfMemory) errors with my maven builds, mainly when I run the mvn site phase, but also sometimes when I run sonar:sonar.

I’m running the builds on both linux (centos) and windows.

To fix the issue on Windows:

Edit mvn.bat (this lives in your maven bin directory) and add

set MAVEN_OPTS=-Xmx512m

In theory you could add an environment variable called MAVEN_OPTS and give it the same value as above (Xmx512m) but this didn’t actually work very well for me.

To fix on linux:

Edit your mvn file (which for me was in /usr/local/maven/bin/) and add:

export MAVEN_OPTS=”-Xms256m -Xmx512m”

You could of course add this to your bash profile (don’t forget to source it afterward) or add it to etc/profile, but I found adding it to the mvn file to work best.

To fix on Continuous Integration Servers:

I’ve been getting this error on a number of our CI servers as well, so rather than go around adding “export MAVEN_OPTS” all over the place, I am passing it via the CI system. Hudson, Jenkins, Bamboo and Go all have simple UIs for adding extra parameters to your build commands.

Installing Go (crusie) build agents on linux

This is just an easy at-a-glance reference for installing the Go cruise agent on Linux because I’ve done it a few times and just want to have the instructions in one place. I’m using centos for my OS, but these instructions are true for most rpm supporting linux varieties.

Download the rpm:

You have to download the agent from the website here. Copy this to somewhere sensible on the target box, like /tmp for example.

Create User and Extract rpm:

After following the standard instructions a couple of times I noticed that the group and user “cruise” were not being created correctly on my servers. This could be an issue with the rpm I was using or an issue with the VM servers. Either way, to get around this issue I just manually create the group and user before extracting the rpm:

useradd cruise
groupadd cruise
useradd -G cruise cruise

Next I just install the rpm as root:

sudo rpm -i cruise-agent-2.0.0-11407.noarch.rpm

N.B. The latest rpm at this point in time is actually “go-agent-2.1.0-11943.noarch.rpm”.

The files are installed here:





Connecting the Agent with the Server:

The file /etc/default/cruise-agent needs to be edited so that the cruise agent knows how to connect to the cruise server.

Open this file in vim or something similar. it should look like this:

Simply change the IP address of the CRUISE_SERVER to the IP address of the cruise server! You might also need to change the port number if you’ve installed your cruise server to a non default port.

Next you need to start the agent:

/etc/init.d/cruise-agent start

And that’s about it. You should now see the agent appear in your agents list on the cruise server. Put a tick next to it and click enable and this will add the new agent to your cruise-config.xml, where you can assign resources or add it as an environment.






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